Respiration by Yeast
During respiration, undergo metabolic processes to obtain energy from the breakdown of sugars. However, yeast can only metabolize certain types of sugars. In order for yeast to utilize a particular sugar as a food source, it needs to have specific transport mechanisms to bring the sugar molecules into its cells. Additionally, the yeast must possess the necessary enzymes capable of breaking down the chemical bonds in the sugar molecules in a way that can be used for energy production.
Among the various sugars, is an essential source of energy for all living organisms, including yeast. Yeast can metabolize glucose through two different pathways: aerobic respiration and anaerobic fermentation. In , yeast utilize oxygen to break down glucose molecules completely, resulting in the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) as byproducts. This process is highly efficient and yields a larger amount of energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
On the other hand, yeast can also carry out in the absence of oxygen. This process, known as fermentation, allows yeast to partially break down glucose molecules, resulting in the production of ethanol (alcohol) and carbon dioxide as byproducts. Although fermentation provides yeast with energy, it is less efficient compared to aerobic respiration.
In this lab, the objective is to investigate the ability of yeast to metabolize different sugars and observe . The four sugars being tested are glucose, , , and . The experiment involves using a CO2 Gas Sensor to measure the production of carbon dioxide by yeast as they respire using these sugars. The production of carbon dioxide indicates the metabolic activity of the yeast and provides insight into their ability to utilize the tested sugars as a food source.
By observing the rate and amount of carbon dioxide produced by the yeast when exposed to each sugar, it is possible to determine which sugars can be effectively metabolized by the yeast. This information helps in understanding the metabolic preferences and capabilities of yeast in utilizing different sugars for energy production.
- Respiration rate
- Use a C02 Gas Sensor to measure concentrations of carbon dioxide.
- Determine the rate of respiration by yeast while using different sugars.
- Determine which sugars can be used as a food source by yeast.
- Vernier LabQuest 2 device
- Water bath @ 38-40 °C
- Vernier C02 Gas Sensor (2)
- Test tube rack
- Yeast Suspension*
- Deionized water
- 10x100mm test tubes (5)
- 5% Glucose, Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose sugar solutions
- Disposable pipettes OR p-1000 Micropipettes with tips
- 250ml respiration chamber or Erlenmeyer flask (5)
*Stock solution of yeast: 7g of yeast (1 packet) in 100 mL water prepared fresh for the class, placed in 38-40 °C water bath for 10 minutes.
1. What is the purpose of investigating the ability of yeast to metabolize different sugars in the lab?
2. How does yeast obtain energy from the breakdown of sugars during respiration?
3. What are the specific requirements for yeast to utilize a particular sugar as a food source?
4. Which sugar is considered an essential source of energy for all living organisms, including yeast?
5. What are the two pathways through which yeast can metabolize glucose?
6. Describe the byproducts produced during aerobic respiration of glucose by yeast.
7. What is the difference between aerobic respiration and anaerobic fermentation in yeast?
8. How does the efficiency of energy production differ between aerobic respiration and anaerobic fermentation in yeast?
9. What is the role of the CO2 Gas Sensor in the lab experiment?
10. How can observing the rate and amount of carbon dioxide produced by yeast when exposed to different sugars help determine their metabolic preferences and capabilities?
- Prepare a water bath for the yeast. A water bath is simply a large reservoir of water at a certain temperature. This ensures that the yeast will remain at a constant and controlled temperature. Make sure the digital water bath has several inches of water in the basin. Turn the water bath on and set the temperature at 38-40°C. Monitor the temperature of the water bath during the experiment.
- Connect the C02 Gas Sensor to the LabQuest 2 device: Insert the plug into the CHI port at the left side of the device. Set the sensor switch to low (0 – 10,000 ppm) setting. Turn on the LabQuest 2 by pressing the button at the top left of the device.
- To clear any unwanted data from the device before beginning the experiment, tap ‘File’, then select ‘New’ from the drop down menu. When prompted, tap ‘Discard’.
- Obtain five test tubes and label them G, S, F, L, and W.
- Obtain the four sugar solutions: glucose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose:
- Place 3 mL of the glucose solution in test tube G.
- Place 3 mL of the sucrose solution in test tube S.
- Place 3 mL of the fructose solution in test tube F.
- Place 3 mL of the lactose solution in test tube L.
- Place 3 mL of deionized water in test tube W.
- Obtain 15 mL of the yeast suspension. Gently swirl the yeast suspension to mix the yeast that settles to the bottom.
- Put 2 mL of the yeast suspension into the test tube labeled G (glucose). Gently swirl the test tube to mix the yeast into the solution.
- Set the test tube into the water bath and incubate for 10 minutes.
- When incubation is finished, use a pipet to place 3 mL of the solution from test tube G into the 250 mL respiration chamber or flask. Note the temperature of the water bath and record as the actual temperature in Table 1.
- Quickly place the shaft of the C02 Gas Sensor in the opening of the respiration chamber or flask. Gently twist the stopper on the shaft of the C02 Gas Sensor into the chamber opening. Do not twist the shaft of the C02 Gas Sensor or it could be damaged.
- Begin measuring the carbon dioxide concentration by tapping the green arrow ( at the bottom left of the screen. Collect data for 4 minutes (240 seconds), then press the red square to stop data collection. Pressing the arrow button on the right of the device will also start and stop data collection.
- A graph of C02 production over time will be displayed. Move your data to a stored run. To do this, tap on the filing cabinet icon at the top right of the screen.
- When data collection has finished, remove the C02 Gas Sensor from the respiration chamber. Use a notebook or notepad to fan air across the openings in the probe shaft of the C02 Gas Sensor for 1 minute.
- Repeat Steps 7 – 13 for the other four test tubes. Each run will be graphed a different color with a different shape for the data points (square, triangle, circle). It is a good idea to write down which graph represents which sugar.
- When data for all five tubes has been collected and stored, tap the screen next to the filing cabinet icon where it says ‘Run’. Select ‘All Runs’. The graphs for each sugar tested will be displayed.
- Determine the rate of respiration:
- Tap ‘Analyze’ from the top of the screen.
- Select ‘Curve Fit’ from the drop down menu. Select the square for the first sugar tested.
- Tap the arrow next to ‘Choose Fit’ and select ‘Linear’. The formula for a best fit line will appear (y = mx + b).
- RECORD THE SLOPE OF THE LINE (m) AS THE RATE OF RESPIRATION IN TABLE 1. The rate of respiration given by m on the graph is in ppm/s. This should be converted to ppm/min for Table 1.
- Tap OK at the bottom right. This displays the best fit line on the graph.
- Determine the slope of the line (m) for each of the sugars by repeating steps 1 through 5, selecting the next square for the next sugar tested.
- Share your data by email: The graph showing the curve fit lines for all samples should be displayed*. Tap ‘File’ and select ‘Email’. Choose ‘Graph’. Tap the box and type out your email address. Tap ‘Done’. Tap the box next to ‘Subject’ to name the email, then tap ‘Send’. A message saying the email was sent successfully should appear.
*Note: The email function will send whichever graph is currently displayed on the screen. To switch between graphs, tap the ‘Run’ button next to the filing cabinet icon, then select either ‘All Runs’ or the number of the run to view.
- Once the data has been recorded and emailed, shut down the LabQuest 2:
- Clear the data by tapping ‘File’ and selecting ‘New’. Tap ‘Discard’ when prompted.
- Press the button on the device with the house icon.
- Select (System’, then ‘Shut Down’.
- Tap ‘OK’ when prompted.
- Return sensors and LabQuest 2 to the cart. Wash all glassware.
|Respiration Rate (ppm/min)
|Respiration Rate (ppm/min)
DATA ANALYSIS & CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS
- (Optional) When all other groups have posted their results on the board, calculate the average rate of respiration for each solution tested. Record the average rate values in Table 2.
- Make a bar graph of rate of respiration vs. sugar type. The rate values should be plotted on the y-axis, and the sugar type on the x-axis. Use the rate values from Table 1.
- Considering the results of this experiment, do yeast equally utilize all sugars? Explain.
- Hypothesize why some sugars were not metabolized while other sugars were.
- Why do you need to incubate the yeast before you start collecting data?
- Yeast live in many different environments. Make a list of some locations where yeast might naturally grow. Estimate the possible food sources at each of these locations.
Licenses and Attributions
Yeast is a type of fungus belonging to the kingdom Fungi. It is a single-celled microorganism that plays a significant role in various biological processes, especially in the context of fermentation and baking. Yeast cells are eukaryotic, meaning they possess a true nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.
Yeast is widely used in the food and beverage industry, particularly in baking and brewing. It has been utilized by humans for thousands of years for the fermentation of sugars, which results in the production of carbon dioxide, ethanol, and other metabolic byproducts. This fermentation process is essential in the leavening of bread, where carbon dioxide gas produced by yeast causes the dough to rise, resulting in a light and fluffy texture.
The most commonly used species of yeast in baking and brewing is Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has the ability to metabolize various sugars, including glucose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose, through the process of respiration. Yeast cells break down these sugars to obtain energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary energy currency of cells.
Apart from its role in fermentation, yeast also serves as a model organism in biological research. Due to its simple and well-studied genetics, yeast has provided valuable insights into various cellular processes and molecular mechanisms. Researchers have used yeast to study fundamental biological phenomena, such as cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, protein synthesis, and aging.
Yeast cells reproduce asexually through a process called budding, where a small bud or protrusion forms on the parent cell and eventually separates to become a new individual. Under certain conditions, yeast can also undergo sexual reproduction, involving the fusion of two yeast cells and the exchange of genetic material.
In summary, yeast is a single-celled fungus that plays a vital role in fermentation, baking, brewing, and scientific research. Its ability to metabolize sugars and produce carbon dioxide and ethanol has made it an indispensable microorganism in the food and beverage industry. Additionally, yeast's genetic simplicity and biological characteristics have made it a valuable model organism for understanding fundamental biological processes.
Glucose is a simple sugar and one of the most important carbohydrates in biological systems. It is a primary source of energy for living organisms and plays a crucial role in cellular metabolism. Glucose is a monosaccharide, which means it consists of a single sugar molecule. Its chemical formula is C6H12O6.
Glucose is found in various forms and sources in nature. Some common examples include:
1. Blood sugar: Glucose is the main sugar found in the bloodstream of animals, including humans. It is transported through the bloodstream to provide energy to cells throughout the body.
2. Plant sap: Glucose is present in the sap of plants, which serves as a nutrient-rich fluid that transports sugars and other substances within the plant's vascular system.
3. Fruits: Many fruits contain glucose, often in combination with other sugars like fructose. Fruits such as grapes, bananas, apples, and oranges are examples of glucose-containing fruits.
4. Honey: Bees produce honey by converting nectar, a sugary liquid found in flowers, into a concentrated solution. Honey contains glucose as well as other sugars.
5. Starches: Glucose molecules are the building blocks of starch, a polysaccharide found in various plant-based foods. Starchy foods like potatoes, rice, wheat, and corn contain glucose in the form of long chains of starch molecules.
6. Sweeteners: Glucose is used as a sweetener in various food products. It is commonly found in syrups like corn syrup and high-fructose corn syrup, which are widely used in the food industry.
7. Metabolism: Glucose is produced through the breakdown of more complex carbohydrates, such as glycogen (the storage form of glucose in animals) and starches, during digestion. It is then used by cells as a fuel source through processes like glycolysis and cellular respiration.
Glucose is an essential energy source for organisms and serves as a fundamental component in many biological processes. Its availability and regulation in the body are crucial for maintaining normal physiological functions.
Aerobic metabolism of sugar refers to the process by which cells, including yeast cells, break down sugar molecules in the presence of oxygen to produce energy. This process is also known as cellular respiration and occurs in several sequential steps.
The first step in aerobic metabolism is glycolysis, which takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. During glycolysis, a molecule of glucose, a six-carbon sugar, is converted into two molecules of pyruvate, a three-carbon compound. This process involves the breakdown of glucose into smaller molecules, releasing a small amount of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme) as byproducts.
After glycolysis, if oxygen is available, the pyruvate molecules produced are transported into the mitochondria, the powerhouses of the cell. In the mitochondria, the pyruvate molecules undergo further oxidation in a process called the citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle. The citric acid cycle involves a series of chemical reactions that break down the pyruvate molecules, releasing more ATP, NADH, and FADH2 (flavin adenine dinucleotide, another coenzyme).
The NADH and FADH2 molecules produced during glycolysis and the citric acid cycle play a crucial role in the final step of aerobic metabolism: oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane and involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and FADH2 to a series of protein complexes known as the electron transport chain (ETC). As electrons pass through the ETC, they release energy that is used to pump protons (H+) across the inner mitochondrial membrane, creating an electrochemical gradient.
The electrochemical gradient created by the ETC drives the synthesis of ATP through a process called chemiosmosis. ATP synthase, an enzyme located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, utilizes the energy from the proton gradient to produce ATP. This process is known as oxidative phosphorylation because it couples the phosphorylation of ADP (adenosine diphosphate) to form ATP with the oxidation of NADH and FADH2.
Overall, aerobic metabolism of sugar provides the most efficient way to produce energy in cells. It yields a large amount of ATP compared to anaerobic processes like fermentation. By utilizing oxygen, cells can fully break down sugar molecules, extracting maximum energy from them and generating carbon dioxide and water as byproducts. This process is essential for the functioning and survival of cells, including yeast cells, in oxygen-rich environments.
Anaerobic metabolism of sugar, also known as fermentation, is a metabolic pathway that allows cells to generate energy from sugar molecules in the absence of oxygen. Unlike aerobic metabolism, which occurs in the presence of oxygen and yields more energy, anaerobic metabolism is less efficient and produces fewer ATP molecules.
There are several types of anaerobic fermentation, but one of the most common forms is alcoholic fermentation, which occurs in yeast and some bacteria. In this process, glucose or other sugars are converted into ethanol (alcohol) and carbon dioxide.
The first step of anaerobic metabolism is glycolysis, which takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. During glycolysis, a molecule of glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate, similar to the process in aerobic metabolism. This step releases a small amount of ATP and NADH.
In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate molecules undergo further conversion through fermentation. In the case of alcoholic fermentation, pyruvate is decarboxylated, meaning it loses a carbon dioxide molecule, to form acetaldehyde. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase. Simultaneously, NADH is oxidized back to NAD+ by transferring its electrons to the acetaldehyde, producing NAD+ and NADH. Acetaldehyde then undergoes a second reaction, catalyzed by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, where it is reduced by NADH to produce ethanol. This final step regenerates NAD+ for further glycolysis to continue.
The overall process of anaerobic metabolism of sugar is less efficient than aerobic metabolism because it produces only a small amount of ATP. In addition to ethanol, carbon dioxide is also produced as a byproduct. This is why during alcoholic fermentation, we observe the release of carbon dioxide bubbles.
Anaerobic metabolism is important for organisms that live in environments with low oxygen availability. It allows them to continue producing energy even when oxygen is limited or absent. For example, yeast cells undergo anaerobic metabolism when fermenting sugars in the absence of oxygen, which is utilized in the production of alcoholic beverages and bread-making.
It's important to note that different organisms can undergo other types of anaerobic fermentation, such as lactic acid fermentation in some bacteria and human muscle cells. These processes involve different intermediate compounds and produce lactic acid instead of ethanol as the end product.
Respiration rate refers to the rate at which an organism or a cell undergoes cellular respiration, which is the process of breaking down organic molecules, such as sugars, to produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). In the case of yeast, respiration rate specifically refers to the rate at which yeast cells carry out the process of cellular respiration.
Yeast cells are capable of metabolizing sugars through aerobic respiration, which occurs in the presence of oxygen, or anaerobic respiration, which occurs in the absence of oxygen. Both forms of respiration involve the breakdown of sugar molecules to release energy.
During aerobic respiration, yeast cells convert glucose, sucrose, fructose, lactose, or other sugars into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). This process involves a series of enzymatic reactions that occur in the mitochondria of yeast cells. Oxygen is used as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain, allowing for the efficient production of ATP.
In contrast, during anaerobic respiration, yeast cells can metabolize sugars without the presence of oxygen. Instead of utilizing oxygen as the final electron acceptor, yeast cells undergo a process called fermentation. In this process, sugar molecules are partially broken down, producing alcohol (typically ethanol) and carbon dioxide as byproducts. This type of respiration is commonly observed in yeast when they are in an oxygen-deprived environment, such as when fermenting fruits to produce alcoholic beverages or when used in baking to make bread rise.
The respiration rate of yeast can be measured by monitoring the production of carbon dioxide gas. As yeast cells metabolize sugars, they release carbon dioxide as a byproduct, which can be detected and quantified using various methods, such as gas sensors or gas chromatography. By measuring the rate of carbon dioxide production, researchers can assess the metabolic activity and respiration rate of yeast under different conditions, such as varying sugar concentrations, temperatures, or pH levels.
Overall, the respiration rate of yeast provides insights into its metabolic activity, energy production, and ability to utilize different sugars as energy sources. It is an important parameter to consider when studying yeast physiology, fermentation processes, or when using yeast in various applications, such as brewing, winemaking, or biofuel production.
Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose molecules linked together. It is commonly known as table sugar and is one of the most widely used sweeteners in the world. The chemical formula of sucrose is C12H22O11.
Sucrose is found in various natural sources and is commonly used as a sweetening agent in food and beverages. Here are some common examples of where sucrose is found:
1. Sugarcane: Sucrose is abundantly found in sugarcane plants. Sugarcane juice is extracted from the stalks of the plant and processed to obtain crystalline sucrose, which is further refined to produce table sugar.
2. Sugar beet: Sugar beet is another major commercial source of sucrose. The sucrose content is extracted from the root of the sugar beet plant and processed similarly to sugarcane to obtain sugar.
3. Fruits: Sucrose is naturally present in many fruits, although in varying amounts. Fruits like mangoes, pineapples, oranges, and strawberries contain sucrose along with other sugars like glucose and fructose.
4. Processed foods: Sucrose is widely used as a sweetener in processed foods such as baked goods, candies, desserts, soft drinks, and sauces. It provides sweetness and enhances the flavor of these products.
5. Condiments: Some condiments and spreads, such as jams, jellies, and syrups, contain sucrose to add sweetness and improve the taste.
6. Confectionery: Chocolates, candies, and confectionery products often contain sucrose as a primary sweetener. It contributes to the desirable taste and texture of these treats.
7. Beverages: Many beverages, including soda, energy drinks, and sweetened teas, contain sucrose for sweetening purposes.
Sucrose is widely consumed in the human diet and is a common ingredient in various culinary preparations. However, it is important to consume sucrose in moderation as excessive intake can contribute to health issues like obesity, dental problems, and metabolic disorders.
Fructose is a monosaccharide, or simple sugar, that is naturally occurring in many fruits, vegetables, and sweeteners. It is the sweetest of all naturally occurring sugars and has the same chemical formula as glucose (C6H12O6), but with a different arrangement of atoms.
Here are some key points about fructose and common examples of where it is found:
1. Natural Sources: Fructose is found in varying amounts in a wide range of fruits and vegetables. Some examples include:
- Fruits: Fructose is abundant in fruits such as apples, pears, grapes, cherries, peaches, and mangoes. It contributes to the natural sweetness of these fruits.
- Honey: Honey contains a mixture of fructose and glucose, with fructose being the predominant sugar. Bees convert nectar from flowers into honey, which is a concentrated source of fructose.
- Agave: Agave syrup, derived from the agave plant, is a popular natural sweetener that primarily consists of fructose. It is commonly used as an alternative to table sugar.
2. Processed Foods and Beverages: Fructose is also used as an added sweetener in various processed foods and beverages. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a common sweetener used in soft drinks, processed snacks, cereals, and baked goods. It is produced by enzymatically converting glucose from cornstarch into fructose, resulting in a sweeter and more economical alternative to sucrose (table sugar).
3. Sweeteners: Crystalline fructose, which is a highly pure form of fructose, is used as a sweetening agent in some food products. It is sweeter than sucrose and can be found in certain beverages, desserts, and low-calorie or sugar-free products.
It is worth noting that excessive consumption of fructose, particularly in the form of added sugars like high-fructose corn syrup, has been associated with potential health risks. High intake of fructose from processed foods and beverages has been linked to increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic disorders. As with any sugar, moderation is key when consuming fructose as part of a balanced diet.
Lactose is a disaccharide composed of two sugar molecules, glucose and galactose, linked together. It is commonly referred to as milk sugar because it is the primary sugar found in milk and dairy products. Lactose is unique in that it is primarily found in mammalian milk, including human breast milk.
Here are some key points about lactose and common examples of where it is found:
1. Milk and Dairy Products: Lactose is abundantly present in milk from various mammalian species, including cows, goats, and sheep. It serves as the main carbohydrate source in milk. Dairy products such as yogurt, cheese, butter, and ice cream also contain lactose, although the concentration may vary depending on the specific product.
2. Human Breast Milk: Lactose is an essential component of human breast milk, providing a source of energy for infants. It plays a crucial role in the development and growth of newborns. Human breast milk typically contains higher levels of lactose compared to the milk of other mammalian species.
3. Lactose-Containing Food Products: Lactose is sometimes used as an ingredient in processed food products, especially those aimed at individuals who are lactose intolerant. These products may include lactose-reduced or lactose-free dairy alternatives, lactose-free milk, lactose-free ice cream, and lactose-free yogurts.
4. Medications and Supplements: Lactose is also used as an excipient in some medications and dietary supplements. It can act as a filler or a binding agent in tablet or capsule formulations. Individuals with lactose intolerance or milk allergies should be cautious about consuming such products and may need to seek alternatives.
Lactose intolerance is a common condition where the body lacks sufficient amounts of the enzyme lactase, which is responsible for breaking down lactose into glucose and galactose for absorption in the small intestine. This leads to digestive symptoms, such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea, after consuming lactose-containing foods or beverages. As a result, individuals with lactose intolerance often need to limit or avoid foods high in lactose or use lactase supplements to aid in digestion.
It's important to note that lactose is not naturally present in non-dairy plant-based beverages like soy milk, almond milk, or coconut milk. These products are typically made by grinding or blending the respective plant material with water, without the addition of lactose.